The energy of climates, with focus on solar radiation on Earth (effects and its spatial distribution)  
Components of the climate system (atmosphere, ocean, biosphere)  
The climate system and biogeochemical cycles  
Typology and current spatial distribution of climates, with related biomes  
The evolution of the climate on Earth; Natural and anthropogenic causes of climate change and its effects ; Urban climate; Projections of future climate ; Climate change mitigation and adaptation ; Climate change policies